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End Notes

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SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY


Blegen, Carl W., and M. Rawson. The Palace of Nestor at Py/os in Western Messenia I: The Buildings and Their Contents. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.
Blegen, Carl W., M. Rawson, W. Taylour, and W. P. Donovan.
The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia III: Acropolis and Lower Town, Tholoi, Grave Circles and Chamber Tombs, Discoveries Outside the Citadel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.
Chadwick, John. The Mycenaean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.
Davis, Jack L., ed. Sandy Pylos: An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998.
Lang, Mabel L. The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia II: The Frescoes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Shelmerdine, Cynthia W., and Thomas G. Palaima, eds. Pylos Comes Alive: Industry and Administration in a Mycenaean Palace: Papers of a Symposium Sponsored by the Archaeological Institute of America Regional Symposium Fund. New York: Fordham University, 1984.

ENDNOTES


1.    We are grateful to Phoebe Acheson, Tucker Blackburn, and Sharon Stocker for their help in preparing illustrations, to Kerri Cox for encouraging us to make this revision, and especially to Aaron Wolpert for undertaking the thankless task of assembling color equivalents of the black-and-white illustrations used in earlier editions. We also thank John Bennet for his generosity in sharing with us his knowledge of the Palace of Nestor and the Pylos area.
2.    "Mycenaean" here refers to the Late Mycenaean period (Late Helladic IIIA-B,
ca. 1400-1200 B.C.). The Palace of Nestor was constructed ca. 1300 B.C., at the beginning of Late Helladic IIIB (LH IIIB), and was destroyed about a century later.
3.    These were the so-called Osmanaga Tholos tomb at Charatsari near Koryphasion and the first of the two tholos tombs excavated atTragana (see below, note 22).
4.    The Early Mycenaean period covers the earlier centuries of the Late Bronze Age, prior to the construction of the first Mycenaean palaces (Late Helladic I—II, ca. 1680-1400 B.C.). The Early Mycenaean "palace style" is named not after the Mycenaean palaces, which were constructed later, but after the palace of Knossos on Crete, where the style was current during the 15th century (1400s) B.C. The Middle Helladic period (ca. 2050-1680 B.C.) precedes the Late Bronze Age.
5.    So many tholos tombs have since been found in Messenia that it is clear they cannot all have been for royalty, but were the preferred tomb type of the Mycenaean elite as well as royalty in this region.
6.    Tiryns and Mycenae in the Argolid were excavated first in the late 19th century by Heinrich Schliemann: substantial remains of their Mycenaean palaces can be seen today. The Mycenaean palace at Thebes in central Greece is now covered by the modern city; isolated parts can be seen in various building lots.
7.    The Linear Β script is the system of writing used by the Mycenaean bureaucracy to record economic and administrative information. The language of the script (an early dialect of Greek) was deciphered in 1952 by a young British architect named Michael Ventris.
8.    See bibliography.
9.    There was also a Mycenaean predecessor to the extant Late Helladic IIIB palace.
10.    This gateway lies just inside the fence that now surrounds the site, and is visible from the lower parking lot and the path to Tholos IV.
11.    It is very likely that there was a doorway from the outer portico into room 7, as restored. Recent investigations below floor level strongly suggest that another doorway connected the inner portico with room 8.
12.    Bath attendants are among the personnel mentioned in Linear Β tablets from Pylos.
13.    The name refers to the stirrup shape of the handle. These jars were containers for olive oil (Fig. 23).
14.    The northeast entrance to the Main Building, subsequently blocked off by the addition of courts 42 and 47, is similarly at right angles to the axis of the throne room.
15.    The tholos tomb (Tholos IV), outside the fence of the archaeological site, is reached from the lower parking lot northeast of the palace.
16.    The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia III (see bibliography), pp. 134-176. The grave pits and the floor have been covered, and no remains are visible, but finds are on display in room 3 of the Chora Museum (see below).
17.    Tholos III, commonly called the Kato Englianos Tholos, is located immediately north of the modern asphalt road, and is clearly signposted.
18.    The chamber tombs are visible, but are difficult to locate and are not signposted.
19.    This tomb has often been called the Osmanaga Tholos, Osmanaga being the former name of Koryphasion. From the intersection with the road to Romanou, drive northeast
ca. 500 m toward Chora. Signposted. Turn right, following the earthen track right to its end. The tholos tomb lies a short distance farther to the southeast in an open field.
20.    Drive ca. 7 km north of Pylos on the main road to Chora. Turn left on an earthen road to the village of Petrochori. Signposted. At the outskirts of Petrochori, a track leads south to Voidokoilia Bay after 1.5 km.
21.    This settlement of Coryphasion should not be confused with the village of Koryphasion, which has assumed the ancient name in modern times.
22.    These tombs are often called the Tragana tholos tombs, although they are more easily approached from Romanou than from the village of Tragana. At the edge of town, take the asphalt road to Tragana. Cross the bridge over the Selas River. Signposted. Turn left onto an earthen track. Signposted. After ca. 500 m (1,625 feet), a path leads to the right toward the tombs.
23.    No remnants can be seen. The site lay on the outskirts of Tragana, along the earthen road to Ambelophyto.
24.    Several of the chamber tombs can be easily visited. From the Archaeological Museum of Chora, follow the asphalt road toward Vlachopoulo. Signposted. After a short distance turn left onto an earthen road and park. There are tombs to both left and right of the road, as well as the foundations of a Roman bath.
25.    Drive ca. 500 m from Chora in the direction of the Palace of Nestor. Turn left onto the asphalt road to Myrsinochori (ca. 3 km). At the outskirts of the village, follow an earthen road left to the church of Panayia Routsi. Signposted. The tholos tombs are located in the yard of a small house south of the church.
26.    The site has been largely filled in since its excavation by the Minnesota Messenia Expedition, but a tholos tomb can still be visited. It lies on a high ridge immediately west of the crossroads of the Kalamata-Pylos and the Rizomylo-Koroni highways and can best be reached by asking directions in the village of Karpofora (signposted).
27.    The town of Chora is 3 km north of the site along the main road. The museum is at the far end of town (signposted).